There are many reasons why property movement and cracking in Spain can cause a property to become unstable. Sometimes this is due to subsidence but this is not always the case. Indeed, a relatively common problem in Spanish properties can be due to the decay of the steel reinforcement used in the construction of the property itself.
Many properties in Spain (whether houses or flats) have a ferro-concrete construction. This means that steel is used to reinforce the concrete used in building the property. So, for example, steel rods are surrounded by concrete to give the concrete strength for walls, foundations, ceiling and roof slabs as well as beams. Meanwhile, some properties have a steel beam construction. This is then enclosed with blocks or brickwork.
Obviously, it is important that the steel within a property is correctly connected and protected from damp so as not to lose its integrity. This is very important because if the steel within a property is defective in any way (or becomes defective) then there is a possibility of serious collapse. This may only occur within a particular section of the property concerned but it could stress other areas and can lead to a complete collapse of a building.
The process of steel reinforcement decay in Spain can be slow and is therefore always more prevalent and advanced in older properties. Steel decay can result eventually in structural failure in floors – and even whole apartment blocks have been known to fail. Normally, professional inspection will identify initial signs of decay, so that repairs can be made. However, these repairs are invariably expensive and complicated, and advanced decay can mean that substantial rebuilding is required. In some cases, the concrete itself may be sub-standard or even mixed with salt water and beach sand in coastal locations (albeit in rare cases).
Although new build properties in Spain rarely show signs of reinforcement corrosion – ventilation or surface protection may well have been omitted. In this case, some new properties can be at a high risk of decay in the future.
Unfortunately, in much Spanish building, standard practice precautions to protect steel were commonly ignored during earlier developments and sometimes during the more recent property boom. This was combined, all too often, with poor building control and sometimes, inadequate knowledge on the part of those actually constructing properties. So, even new builds should be inspected professionally to ensure that reinforced steel work has been correctly installed and protected for the long-term security of a building.
Of course, if you have any signs of property movement and cracking in Spain then you should react quickly to have a professional assessment of the problem. I would stress the word ‘professional’ as assessing whether a property has a genuine problem and what that problem has been caused by is not something that should ever be undertaken by an unqualified person.
Indeed, assessing Spanish property movement and subsidence is far from simple. Some homes may have signs of property movement and cracking in Spain and yet these can turn out to be of no concern and merely the results of normal thermal cracking or ageing. On the other hand, some quite minor signs of problems can be an indication of a serious issue that requires prompt attention.